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Definitions and guidelines for research on antibiotic persistence

  • Balaban, Nathalie Q.1
  • Helaine, Sophie2
  • Lewis, Kim3
  • Ackermann, Martin4, 5
  • Aldridge, Bree6
  • Andersson, Dan I.7
  • Brynildsen, Mark P.8
  • Bumann, Dirk9
  • Camilli, Andrew6
  • Collins, James J.10, 11, 12
  • Dehio, Christoph9
  • Fortune, Sarah13
  • Ghigo, Jean-Marc14
  • Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich15
  • Harms, Alexander9
  • Heinemann, Matthias16
  • Hung, Deborah T.12
  • Jenal, Urs9
  • Levin, Bruce R.17
  • Michiels, Jan18
  • And 5 more
  • 1 The Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem, Israel , Jerusalem (Israel)
  • 2 MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 3 Northeastern University, Department of Biology, Boston, MA, USA , Boston (United States)
  • 4 Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland , Zurich (Switzerland)
  • 5 Department of Environmental Microbiology, Eawag, Dubendorf, Switzerland , Dubendorf (Switzerland)
  • 6 Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Boston, MA, USA , Boston (United States)
  • 7 Uppsala University, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala, Sweden , Uppsala (Sweden)
  • 8 Princeton University, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton, NJ, USA , Princeton (United States)
  • 9 Biozentrum of the University of Basel, Focal Area Infection Biology, Basel, Switzerland , Basel (Switzerland)
  • 10 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Institute for Medical Engineering & Science, Department of Biological Engineering, and Synthetic Biology Center, Cambridge, MA, USA , Cambridge (United States)
  • 11 Harvard University, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Boston, MA, USA , Boston (United States)
  • 12 Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA , Cambridge (United States)
  • 13 Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Boston, MA, USA , Boston (United States)
  • 14 Institut Pasteur, Genetics of Biofilms Laboratory, Paris, France , Paris (France)
  • 15 Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland , Zurich (Switzerland)
  • 16 University of Groningen, Molecular Systems Biology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Groningen, Netherlands , Groningen (Netherlands)
  • 17 Emory University, Department of Biology, Atlanta, GA, USA , Atlanta (United States)
  • 18 KU Leuven–University of Leuven, Center for Microbiology, Leuven, Belgium , Leuven (Belgium)
  • 19 Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA , Bethesda (United States)
  • 20 Infectious Diseases Department, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA , South San Francisco (United States)
  • 21 University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia , Tartu (Estonia)
  • 22 Université Libre de Bruxelles, Faculté des Sciences, Bruxelles, Belgium , Bruxelles (Belgium)
  • 23 University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Division of Infectious Diseases, Zurich, Switzerland , Zurich (Switzerland)
Published Article
Nature Reviews Microbiology
Springer Nature
Publication Date
Apr 12, 2019
DOI: 10.1038/s41579-019-0196-3
Springer Nature


Antibiotic persistence contributes to the survival of bacteria during antibiotic treatment. In this Consensus Statement, scientists working on the response of bacteria to antibiotics define antibiotic persistence and provide practical guidance on how to study bacterial persisters.

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