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A Definition of “Regular Meals” Driven by Dietary Quality Supports a Pragmatic Schedule

Authors
  • Lohse, Barbara
  • Faulring, Kathryn
  • Mitchell, Diane C.
  • Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nutrients
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2020
Volume
12
Issue
9
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/nu12092667
PMID: 32882978
PMCID: PMC7551846
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Public health guidelines advise eating regular meals without defining “regular.” This study constructed a meaning for “regular” meals congruent with dietary quality. Parents of 4th grade youth in a school-based intervention (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02491294) completed three, ASA24 online 24-h dietary recalls. Differences in time of intake across days for breakfasts, lunches, dinners were categorized with consistency denoted as always, often/sometimes or rarely/never and assigned values of 3, 2 or 1, respectively. Meal-specific values were summed to form mealtime regularity scores (mReg) ranging from 3 (low) to 9. Healthy eating index (HEI) scores were compared to mReg controlling for weekday/weekend recall pattern. Linear regression predicted HEI scores from mReg. Parents ( n = 142) were non-Hispanic white (92%), female (88%) and educated (73%). One mReg version, mReg1 was significantly associated with total HEI, total fruit, whole fruit, tended to correlate with total protein, seafood/plant protein subcomponents. mReg1 predicted total HEI ( p = 0.001) and was inversely related to BMI ( p = 0.04). A score of three (always) was awarded to breakfasts, lunches or dinners with day-to-day differences of 0–60 min; also, lunches/dinners with one interval of 60–120 min when two meals were ≤60 min apart. More rigid mReg versions were not associated with dietary quality.

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