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Definition and properties of disequilibria within nuclear-mitochondrial-chloroplast and other nuclear-dicytoplasmic systems.

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PMID: 2806883


We define and determine the interrelationships among five sets of disequilibrium parameters that measure two- and three-locus nonrandom associations in nuclear-dicytoplasmic systems. These assume a diploid nuclear locus and two haploid cytoplasmic loci, with special reference to nuclear-mitochondrial-chloroplast systems. Three sets of two-locus disequilibria measure the association between haplotypes at the two cytoplasmic loci (DMC) and associations between each cytoplasmic locus and nuclear alleles or genotypes (DM, D1M, D2M, D3M; DC, D1C, D2C, D3C). In addition, we present two classes of higher-order disequilibria that measure nonrandom allelic or genotypic associations involving all three loci. The first class quantifies associations between the nuclear locus and the two cytoplasmic loci taken jointly (DA/MC, DAA/MC, DAa/MC, Daa/MC, etc.), whereas the second measures only those associations remaining after all two-locus associations have been taken into account (DA/M/C, DAA/M/C, DAa/M/C, Daa/M/C). Based on combinations of these five sets of measures, we suggest a variety of parameterizations of three-locus, nuclear-dicytoplasmic systems. The dynamics of these disequilibria are then investigated under models of random and mixed mating, either with both cytoplasmic genomes inherited through the same parent or through opposite parents. Except for associations between the cytoplasmic haplotypes, which are constant when the two cytoplasmic genomes are inherited through the same parent, all disequilibria ultimately decay to zero. These randomizations do not necessarily occur monotonically, however, and in some cases are preceded by an initial increase in magnitude or sign change. For both inheritance patterns, the asymptotic decay rates are steadily retarded by increasing levels of self-fertilization. This behavior contrasts with that in the extreme case of complete selfing, for which only the heterozygote disequilibria always decay to zero. For all models considered, the dynamics of the two-locus cytonuclear subsystems are solely a function of the mating system, whereas the dynamical behavior and sign patterns of the cytoplasmic and three-locus disequilibria also depend strongly on the mode of cytoplasmic inheritance.


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