Calpain has been implicated in acute myocardial injury after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the causal relationship between calpain and post-MI myocardial remodeling has not been fully understood. This study examined whether deletion of Capn4, essential for calpain-1 and calpain-2 activities, reduces myocardial remodeling and dysfunction following MI, and if yes, whether these effects of Capn4 deletion are associated with NF-κB signaling and inflammatory responses in the MI heart. A novel mouse model with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Capn4 (Capn4-ko) was employed. MI was induced by left coronary artery ligation. Deficiency of Capn4 dramatically reduced the protein levels and activities of calpain-1 and calpain-2 in the Capn4-ko heart. In vivo cardiac function was relatively improved in Capn4-ko mice at 7 and 30 days after MI when compared with their wild-type littermates. Deletion of Capn4 reduced apoptosis, limited infarct expansion, prevented left ventricle dilation, and reduced mortality in Capn4-ko mice. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas and myocardial collagen deposition were significantly attenuated in Capn4-ko mice, which were accompanied by down-regulation of hypertrophic genes and profibrotic genes. These effects of Capn4 knock-out correlated with restoration of IκB protein and inhibition of NF-κB activation, leading to suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Capn4-ko heart after MI. In conclusion, deficiency of Capn4 reduces adverse myocardial remodeling and myocardial dysfunction after MI. These effects of Capn4 deletion may be mediated through prevention of IκB degradation and NF-κB activation, resulting in inhibition of inflammatory responses.