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Defects in beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in normoglycemic streptozocin-treated baboons: a model of preclinical insulin-dependent diabetes.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Publication Date
Volume
67
Issue
4
Pages
785–792
Identifiers
PMID: 3047163
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

During the preclinical period of human insulin-dependent diabetes, both impaired pancreatic beta-cell function and increased insulin resistance are found, although normoglycemia is preserved. To better understand the changes in beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity that occur in preclinical insulin-dependent diabetes, we performed a panel of in vivo beta-cell function tests and measured insulin sensitivity in adolescent male baboons both in normal health and after a small dose of streptozocin which did not induce hyperglycemia. Nine animals were studied before (stage 1) and 1 week after receiving a low dose of streptozocin (stage 2). There was no change in fasting plasma glucose or insulin. The mean glucose disposal rate (Kg) remained within the normal range, but dropped from 2.0 +/- 0.2% +/- SE) to 1.2 +/- 0.1%/min (P less than 0.01), the acute insulin response to arginine (AIR(arg)) fell from 67.7 +/- 19.4 microU/mL (485.8 +/- 139.2 pmol/L) to 32.8 +/- 7.2 microU/mL (235.3 +/- 51.7 pmol/L; P less than 0.05), and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIR(gluc)) fell from 881 +/- 243 microU/mL.10 min (6321 +/- 1744 pmol/L.10 min) to 334 +/- 82 microU/mL.10 min (2396 +/- 588 pmol/L.10 min; P less than 0.01). The most dramatic change, however, was in the ability of hyperglycemia to potentiate AIR(arg) (expressed as the slope of potentiation). This was reduced by 94% from 1.8 +/- 0.5 to 0.1 +/- 0.1 (P less than 0.01), with almost no overlap in values between stages 1 and 2. Insulin sensitivity was also lower 1 week after streptozocin treatment. When the animals were restudied 8 weeks after streptozocin treatment (stage 3) most measures of beta-cell function were not significantly different from those in stage 1. The fasting plasma glucose level was 85.4 +/- 4.3 mg/dL (4.7 +/- 0.2 mmol/L), Kg was 1.8 +/- 0.3%/min, fasting plasma insulin was 35.9 +/- 8.5 microU/mL (257.6 +/- 61.0 pmol/L), AIR(arg) was 67.0 +/- 15.4 microU/mL (480.7 +/- 110.5 pmol/L), and AIR(gluc) was 615.3 +/- 265.3 microU/mL.10 min (4413 +/- 1901 pmol/L.10 min), and tissue insulin sensitivity was 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(4) min/microU.mL. These values show extensive overlap with those of stage 1, from which they are not significantly different. The slope of glucose potentiation, however, remained low in all animals at stage 3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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