Abstract We evaluated the volume reduction of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in patients with an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) assessment based on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score. Patients with AD ( n = 61), with no subcortical WM ischemia, and healthy control patients ( n = 33) underwent T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo sequences, which were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Global GM volume reduction was observed in patients with a CDR score of 1 or a CDR score of 2, and WM volume reduction was observed in patients with a CDR score of 2. Regional GM volume reduction was found in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorso-lateral and medial temporal lobes; WM volume reduction was found in the bilateral temporal subcortex (family-wise error, p < 0.01). A CDR score of 0.5 was associated with volume reduction in the left olfactory gyrus. The peak z-score and spatial extent of volume reduction increased with increasing CDR score and were higher on the left side. GM volume reduction increased with increasing CDR scores and suggests a possible pathomechanism of AD.