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Machine learning in concrete strength simulations: Multi-nation data analytics

Construction and Building Materials
DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.09.054
  • High Performance Concrete
  • Compressive Strength
  • Multi-Nation Data Analysis
  • Machine Learning
  • Ensemble Classifiers
  • Computer Science
  • Engineering


Abstract Machine learning (ML) techniques are increasingly used to simulate the behavior of concrete materials and have become an important research area. The compressive strength of high performance concrete (HPC) is a major civil engineering problem. However, the validity of reported relationships between concrete ingredients and cement replacement materials is questionable. This paper provides a comprehensive study using advanced ML techniques to predict the compressive strength of HPC. Specifically, individual and ensemble learning classifiers are constructed from four different base learners, including multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and logistic regression (LR). For ensemble models that combine multiple classifiers, the voting, bagging, and stacking combination methods are considered. The behavior simulation capabilities of these techniques are investigated using concrete data from several countries. The comparison results show that ensemble learning techniques are better than learning techniques used individually to predict HPC compressive strength. Although the two single best learning models are SVM and MLP, the stacking-based ensemble model composed of CART, SVM, and LR in the first level and SVM in the second level achieves the best performance measures. This study validates the applicability of ML, voting, bagging, and stacking techniques for simple and efficient simulations of concrete compressive strength.

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