Abstract The parasitoid complex of Cydia strobilella(L.), a Holarctic pest of spruce cones, was investigated at several sites in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Trichogrammasp. was reared from eggs. Larval parasitism was dominated by the ichneumonids Phaedroctonus moderator(L.) and Liotryphon strobilellae(L.) and the braconid Bracon pinetiThoms.; the ichneumonid Scambus capitatorAubert, the eulophid Elachertus geniculatus(Zett.), and the torymid Monodontomerus strobiliMayr were less abundant. A pupal parasitoid, the ichneumonid Tycherus fuscibucca(Berth.), is likely associated with C. strobilella.Each parasitoid's biology is presented. A review of the North American parasitoid complex of C. strobilellasuggests that Trichogrammasp., P. moderator, L. strobilellae,and T. fuscibuccamay be considered for further investigation as biological control agents in North America.