Abstract Peanut oils were obtained from the United States (NAPNO), Africa (APNO), and South America (SAPNO) and their effects on atherosclerosis in rabbits fed 2% cholesterol were determined. The major differences among the oils were in the content of oleic (NAPNO, 48.9%; APNO, 58.6%; SAPNO, 36.4%) and linoleic (NAPNO, 29.6%; APNO, 21.7%; SAPNO, 41.1%) acids. In a series of 4 experiments it was found that South American peanut oil was 7% more atherogenic than African peanut oil and 18% more atherogenic than North American peanut oil. American peanut oil was 14%6 more atherogenic that corn oil (CO). South American peanut oil gave highest serum and liver lipid levels. The differences in atherogenicity may be due to the structure of the triglycerides of the various peanut oils.