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Analgesic efficacy of the cyclooxygenase-inhibiting nitric oxide donor AZD3582 in postoperative dental pain: Comparison with naproxen and rofecoxib in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

Authors
Journal
Clinical Therapeutics
0149-2918
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Disciplines
  • Medicine

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the analgesic efficacy of single doses of 4-(nitrooxy)butyl-(2S)-2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl) propanoate (AZD3582) in acute postoperative dental pain after the removal of an impacted mandibular third molar (ie, wisdom tooth). METHODS: Two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies were performed. In a dose-finding study, 242 patients were randomized to AZD3582 375, 750, 1500, or 2250 mg (n = 41, 37, 42, and 41, respectively); naproxen 500 mg (n = 39); or placebo (n = 42). In a comparator study, 282 patients were randomized to AZD3582 500 mg (n = 78) or 750 mg (n = 83), rofecoxib 50 mg (n = 80), or placebo (n = 41). Primary outcomes included time to rescue medication, time to pain relief, and mean pain intensity difference (MPID), as well as safety profile. Pain was rated on a visual analog scale. RESULTS: In the dose-finding study, 52% (126/242) were women; the mean (SD) age was 25.1 (4) years, mean weight was 69.0 kg, and the mean (SD) body mass index (BMI) was 23.7 (3) kg/m2. In the comparator study, 58% (164/282) were women; the mean (SD) age was 27 (6.4) years, mean weight was 71 kg, and mean (SD) BMI was 24.2 (3) kg/m2. In the dose-finding study, the AZD3582 750-, 1500-, and 2250-mg groups were superior to placebo in the primary variables "time to rescue medication (0-8 hours)" (hazard ratios [HRs] [95% CIs], 0.17 [0.07-0.42], P < 0.003; 0.23 [0.11-0.50], P < 0.001; and 0.15 [0.06-0.36], P < 0.001, respectively), "time to meaningful pain relief" (HRs [95% CIs], 3.42 [1.87-6.25], P < 0.003; 2.49 [1.37-4.50], P < 0.003; and 3.07 [1.70-5.55], P < 0.001, respectively), and MPID (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA] least squares mean [LSM] differences [95% CIs], 25.8 [17.3-34.4], P < 0.003; 20.4 [12.1-28.7], P < 0.003; and 29.3 [20.9-37.6], P < 0.001, respectively). AZD3582 and naproxen did not show any statistically significant differences for the 3 primary variables, except that naproxen was superior to the AZD3582 375-mg dose for the variables time to meaningful pain relief (HR difference, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.29-0.78], P < 0.004) and MPID (difference in ANCOVA LSM, -10.2, [95% CI, -18.2 to -2.2], P < 0.012). The median times to meaningful pain relief were 115 minutes for AZD3582 375 mg, 66 minutes for 750 mg, 85 minutes for 1500 mg, 81 minutes for 2250 mg, and 162 minutes for placebo (P = NS, P = 0.003, P < 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). The median time to first rescue medication was 144 minutes for placebo, and <50% of the subjects on any of the AZD3582 doses or naproxen took rescue medication within 8 hours after dosing. In the comparator study, AZD3582 750 mg was superior to placebo in "time to rescue medication (0-24 hours)" (HR [95% CI], 0.4 [0.3-0.6], P < 0.001), "time to confirmed perceptible pain relief" (2.1 [1.1-3.8], P = 0.02), and MPID (11.9 [4.2-19.5], P = 0.002). However, inferiority of AZD3582 to rofecoxib for MPID could not be excluded (tolerance limit of 10 mm; P = NS for noninferiority testing). The median times to confirmed perceptible pain relief were 45 minutes for AZD3582 500 mg, 40 minutes for 750 mg, and 37 minutes for rofecoxib. The median times to first rescue medication were 218 minutes for AZD3582 500 mg, 365 minutes for 750 mg, 635 minutes for rofecoxib, and 90 minutes for placebo. Overall, AZD3582 was well tolerated. However, an effect on orthostatic blood pressure could not be excluded because there seemed to be more subjects with dizziness and orthostatic blood pressure reduction who were administered AZD3582 > or =750 mg. The proportions of patients with vertigo and decreased orthostatic blood pressure each group were as follows: AZD3582 500 mg, 6%; AZD3582 750 mg, 12%; rofecoxib, 3%; and placebo, 5%. CONCLUSIONS: AZD3582 750 mg had similar analgesic efficacy as equimolar doses of naproxen, but noninferiority to rofecoxib was not demonstrated.

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