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A de novo mutation in the X-linked PAK3 gene is the underlying cause of intellectual disability and macrocephaly in monozygotic twins.

Authors
  • Hertecant, Jozef1
  • Komara, Makanko2
  • Nagi, Aslam3
  • Al-Zaabi, Olfat4
  • Fathallah, Waseem5
  • Cui, Hong6
  • Yang, Yaping6
  • Eng, Christine M6
  • Al Sorkhy, Mohammad7
  • Ghattas, Mohammad A7
  • Al-Gazali, Lihadh8
  • Ali, Bassam R9
  • 1 Department of Paediatrics, Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • 2 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • 3 Department of Paediatrics, Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • 4 Fujairah Hospital, Fujairah, United Arab Emirates.
  • 5 Mafraq Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
  • 6 Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Baylor Miraca Genetics Laboratories, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
  • 7 College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • 8 Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  • 9 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address: [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
European journal of medical genetics
Publication Date
Jan 24, 2017
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2017.01.004
PMID: 28126652
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Pathogenic variants in theP21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3gene (PAK3) lead to a rare non syndromic X-linked intellectual disability. The protein encoded by this gene forms an activated complex with GTP-bound RAS-like (P21), CDC2 and RAC1 proteins which then mediates a variety of cellular processes. So far, mutations in PAK3 gene have been reported in few families affected with intellectual disability associated with neurological manifestations such as speech defect, behavioral problem, brain structural abnormalities, microcephaly and cerebral palsy. In this study whole exome sequencing revealed a de novo likely pathogenic variant in PAK3 gene in monozygotic twins presented with intellectual disability, speech delay, behavioral problems and macrocephaly. Macrocephaly was noticed in our patients from birth at 35 weeks of gestation. This aspect of the phenotype has not been previously reported in other documented cases with pathogenic mutations in PAK3 gene. Our findings extend the phenotype of this disorder to include macrocephaly and offers further clues to the importance of the serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (PAK3) protein in brain development and function.

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