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In vivo transmission blocking activities of artesunate on the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum

Authors
Journal
Veterinary Parasitology
0304-4017
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
197
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.07.024
Keywords
  • Anti-Malarial Compounds
  • Gametocytocide
  • In Vivo Transmission Blocking Assays
Disciplines
  • Economics

Abstract

Abstract Infection and transmission of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum in domestic chickens is associated with high economic burden and presents a major challenge to poultry industry in South East Asia. Development of drugs targeting both asexual blood stage parasites and sexual stages of the avian malarias will be beneficial for malaria treatment and eradication. However, current drugs recommended for treatment of the avian malaria parasites target specifically the asexual blood stage parasites, but have little or no impact to the gametocytes, the major target for development of transmission-blocking strategies. In the present work, we established a simple procedure to evaluate gametocytocidal and transmission blocking activities in a P. gallinaceum-avian model. The assays involved administration of seven consecutive daily doses of test compounds into P. gallinaceum-infected chickens with 10% parasitaemia and 1% gametocytaemia. Our studies indicated that intramuscular injection with seven daily low doses (the minimum effective dose of 10mg/kg) of artesunate blocked the gametocyte production and transmission to the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. This assay can be further applicable for testing new compounds against P. gallinaceum and for other parasitic protozoa infecting birds.

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