Introduction The outcome of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication therapy from the aspect of prevention of chest pain recurrence is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of Hp eradication therapy on the risk of hospitalization due to acute coronary syndrome. Material and methods The analysis was carried out in 63 consecutive patients with recurrent retrosternal symptoms: 28 (44%) with significant coronary artery narrowing in coronarography not qualified for revascularization by an invasive cardiologist, and 35 (56%) with no obstructive coronary artery lesions. In 33 (52%) of the patients, Hp infection was found and standard eradication therapy with omeprazole (2 × 20 mg), amoxicillin (2 × 1 g) and metronidazole (2 × 500 mg) was recommended. The mean follow-up period was 977 ±249 days. Results Chest pain requiring hospitalization because of unstable angina within the follow-up period was observed in 9 (27%) of the Hp-infected individuals and in 15 (50%) subjects in whom a urease test and histology did not confirm this infection (p = 0.055). The recommendation of Hp-eradication treatment was a significant factor prolonging the hospitalization-free period, both in the two Kaplan-Meier curve analyses (Cox’s F test = 1.96; p = 0.049) and the Cox proportional hazard model (beta = –1.18; p = 0.045), but was weaker than the effect of the non-obstructive coronary angiogram (beta = –1.45; p = 0.03). Conclusions The recommendation of Hp-eradication therapy may prolong the hospitalization-free period for patients with recurrent chest pain.