This dissertation aims to describe important macroeconomic indicators, which influence economic situation in the Czech Republic and other countries. In the first part of the dissertation, I tried to characterize balance of payments, inflation, gross domestic product and unemployment. Characterize them, describe their function in the economy and way in which government policy can influence these macroeconomic indicators. The second part of the dissertation describes history of the Czech Republic through development of the economy. The main milestone is the year 1989. Before the changeover to market economy, none of the indicators was known. Each of the indicators is described from view of their historical development and the current economic situation of the Czech Republic compared with some other countries of the European Union.