In this paper, the effect of maternal health on the under-five mortality has been examined. Third wave of micro-level National Family Health Survey 2005-06 data for rural India is used. Using various alternative measures of maternal health, the paper finds strong association between maternal health and child mortality. In particular, the effects of maternal height, weight, presence of any disease and anemia are found significant. Based on our findings, we argue that if the possible generational transfer of poor health from a mother to her child has to avoid, policies aimed at attaining the millennium development goal of reduced child mortality should be directed on improving the health of existing and future mothers.