ABSTRACT Objective To determine whether children with borderline pathology have a specific pattern of neuropsychological risk factors. Method The subjects were 94 school-age children in day treatment, divided into borderline (n = 41) and nonborderline (n = 53) groups according to results of the Child version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. All children were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, and a neuropsychological battery. Results Children with borderline pathology had abnormal scores on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and on the Continuous Performance Test, both of which suggested problems with executive function. Although borderline pathology was highly comorbid with conduct disorder, most results were independent of this comorbidity. Conclusions Borderline pathology in children has a unique pattern of neuropsychological risk factors that may reflect a diathesis for this syndrome.