Background and Objective Emerging evidence indicates that common functional polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene may have an impact on an individual’s susceptibility to endometrial cancer, but individually published results are inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis is to derive a more precise estimation of the associations between eight polymorphisms in the ESR1 gene and endometrial cancer risk. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases was conducted on publications published before November 1st, 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using the STATA 12.0 software. Results Thirteen case-control studies were included with a total of 7,649 endometrial cancer cases and 16,855 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, the results indicated that PvuII (C>T) polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, especially among Caucasian populations. There were also significant associations between rs3020314 (C>T) polymorphism and an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Furthermore, rs2234670 (S/L) polymorphism may decrease the risk of endometrial cancer. However, no statistically significant associations were found in XbaI (A>G), Codon 325 (C>G), Codon 243 (C>T), VNTR (S/L) and rs2046210 (G>A) polymorphisms. Conclusion The current meta-analysis suggests that PvuII (C>T) and rs3020314 (C>T) polymorphisms may be risk factors for endometrial cancer, especially among Caucasian populations.