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D-CARE: The Dementia Care Study: Design of a Pragmatic Trial of the Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Health System-Based Versus Community-Based Dementia Care Versus Usual Dementia Care.

  • Reuben, David B
  • Gill, Thomas M
  • Stevens, Alan
  • Williamson, Jeff
  • Volpi, Elena
  • Lichtenstein, Maya
  • Jennings, Lee A
  • Tan, Zaldy
  • Evertson, Leslie
  • Bass, David
  • Weitzman, Lisa
  • Carnie, Martie
  • Wilson, Nancy
  • Araujo, Katy
  • Charpentier, Peter
  • Meng, Can
  • Greene, Erich J
  • Dziura, James
  • Liu, Jodi
  • Unger, Erin
  • And 15 more
Publication Date
Nov 01, 2020
eScholarship - University of California
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Background/objectivesAlthough several approaches have been developed to provide comprehensive care for persons living with dementia (PWD) and their family or friend caregivers, the relative effectiveness and cost effectiveness of community-based dementia care (CBDC) versus health system-based dementia care (CBDC) and the effectiveness of both approaches compared with usual care (UC) are unknown.DesignPragmatic randomized three-arm superiority trial. The unit of randomization is the PWD/caregiver dyad.SettingFour clinical trial sites (CTSs) based in academic and clinical health systems.ParticipantsA total of 2,150 English- or Spanish-speaking PWD who are not receiving hospice or residing in a nursing home and their caregivers.InterventionsEighteen months of (1) HSDC provided by a nurse practitioner or physician's assistant dementia care specialist who works within the health system, or (2) CBDC provided by a social worker or nurse care consultant who works at a community-based organization, or (3) UC with as needed referral to the Alzheimer's Association Helpline.MeasurementsPrimary outcomes: PWD behavioral symptoms and caregiver distress as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) Severity and Modified Caregiver Strain Index scales.Secondary outcomesNPI-Q Distress, caregiver unmet needs and confidence, and caregiver depressive symptoms. Tertiary outcomes: PWD long-term nursing home placement rates, caregiver-reported PWD functional status, cognition, goal attainment, "time spent at home," Dementia Burden Scale-Caregiver, a composite measure of clinical benefit, Quality of Life of persons with dementia, Positive Aspects of Caregiving, and cost effectiveness using intervention costs and Medicare claims.ResultsThe results will be reported in the spring of 2024.ConclusionD-CARE will address whether emphasis on clinical support and tighter integration with other medical services has greater benefit than emphasis on social support that is tied more closely to community resources. It will also assess the effectiveness of both interventions compared with UC and will evaluate the cost effectiveness of each intervention.

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