Objectives Gut microbiota provides beneficial effects under physiological conditions, but is able to contribute to inflammatory diseases in susceptible individuals. Thus, we designed this study to test whether additional intake of symbiotic gel affects specific modifications of gut microbiota in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods Eighteen patients with ESRD diagnosis with renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis) were included in this study. They were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: (1) test group (nutritional counseling + symbiotic) and (2) control group (nutritional counseling + placebo). Clinical history and the evaluation of Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale were performed. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction from fecal samples. All subjects were followed for 2 months. Results Bifidobacterial counts were higher in the second samples (mean: 5.5 ± 1.72 log10 cells/g) than in first samples (4.2 ± 0.88 log 10 cells/g) in the patients of the test group (P = .0344). Also, lactobacilli counts had a little decrease in the test group (2.3 ± 0.75 to 2.0 ± 0.88 log 10 cells/g) and the control group (2.2 ± 0.90 to 1.8 ± 1.33 log 10 cells/g), between the first and the second samples. Gastrointestinal symptoms scores (scale 8-40) were reduced in the test group (start 12 [10-14] and end 9 [8-10]) compared with control group (start 11 [8-21] and end 11 [9-15]). Conclusions Short-term symbiotic treatment in patients with ESRD can lead to the increase of Bifidobacterium counts, maintaining the intestinal microbial balance.