Abstract In the homozygous state, mice carrying the “nude” (nu) gene are hairless (nude), lack a thymus and have profound deficiency of cell-mediated immunity. Cryptococcosis was studied in BALB/c and Swiss mice, each strain carrying the nu gene. The purpose was to determine the interactions of the nu gene and mouse strain in terms of susceptibility to Cryptococcosis. Mice of both strains could be sensitized to produce delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to cryptococcal extract in the heterozygous nu/X state, but not in the nu/nu state. Nu/X Swiss mice were more resistant than nu/X BALB/c mice to infection with a highly virulent strain (B) of Cryptococcus neoformans. However, nu/nu BALB/c and nu/nu Swiss mice were both highly susceptible to the same microorganism. Challenge with another cryptococcal strain (A) of much lower virulence for nu/X mice killed 100% of BALB/c and Swiss nu/nu mice. These studies indicate that thymus-dependent immune functions are critical determinants of host resistance to murine Cryptococcosis.