Population densities of the Mediterranean biotype of Tylenchulus semipenetrans were monitored in soil and citrus roots at 3-month intervals for 3 consecutive years in four citrus orchards in the provinces of Tarragona (Amposta and Xalamera) and Valencia (Moncada and Cárcer). Nematode population densities in soil peaked once a year in April or July depending on the orchard and year. Numbers of females per gram of root increased once or twice each year. The maximum density of eggs per gram of root was recorded in April at Xalamera and Cárcer orchards, but there was no recognizable peak in the other two orchards. Numbers of nematodes in soil, females or eggs per gram of root, or eggs per female were correlated with either temperature or rainfall in the sampling month, 1 month before sampling, or in the second preceding month, depending on the orchard. Members of the Pasteuria group were present in the four citrus orchards, and a positive relationship occurred between nematodes in soil and bacterial parasitism (r²= 0.75) in the orchard at Amposta.