Highlights are given of a mangove community structure survey conducted in the coastal barangays of Carles, Panay Island, Philippines, in April 2003. The survey aimed to qualitatively describe the species composition, community structure and plant biomass of mangrove forests. The 13 sample sites showed a total of 18 mangrove species, dominated by Avicennia marina. The findings, which indicate a modest yet declining diversity of mangroves in Carles, reinforce the need for their protection and management. This is due not only to their importance as habitats for fish and shellfish juveniles that replenish stocks for capture fisheries and aquaculture, but also due to the fact that Carles is one of the few remaining areas in Panay where rare mangrove species can still be found.