Food allergy affects approximately 5% of children and is the leading cause of hospitalization for anaphylactic reactions in westernized countries. However, the pathways of anaphylaxis in food allergy are still relatively unknown. We investigated the effector pathways of allergic and anaphylactic responses of different strains of mice in a clinical relevant model of peanut allergy. C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were sensitized by intragastric peanut extract and challenged by intragastric or intraperitoneal injection of peanut. Peanut-specific T cell responses, IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a and mucosal mast cell degranulation were induced to different extent in C3H/HeOuJ, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, anaphylactic symptoms after systemic challenge were highest in C3H/HeOuJ followed by C57BL/6 but were absent in BALB/c mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the food allergic systemic anaphylaxis was dependent on platelets, FcRγ and mast cells, and partially dependent on platelet activating factor and monocytes/macrophages, depending on mouse strain. These data demonstrate that in three mouse strains, components of the classic and alternative anaphylactic cascade are differently expressed, leading to differential outcomes in parameters of allergic disease and food induced systemic anaphylaxis.