Abstract The effects of exercise on hypocholesterolemia, one of the risk factors of cerebrovascular disorders, were examined. 47–51-day-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (stroke-prone SHRs) were assigned to 2 groups, sedentary or exercise, and raised for 8 weeks. The total serum cholesterol level of the exercised group was 17–18% higher ( P < 0.01) than the control group, and the level of cholesterol synthesis in the liver of the former group significantly higher than in the latter. On the other hand, the level of intestinal cholesterol synthesis in the exercised group was significantly lower. The activity of HMG-CoA reductase in the liver microsomes was significantly increased by exercise, but the activity of this enzyme in the small intestine was not affected. A significant correlation was observed between the rate of cholesterol synthesis in the liver and the amount of radiolabeled cholesterol released into the serum. From these results, we conclude that the enhancement of the synthesis and the release of cholesterol in the liver by exercise is a major cause of the exercise-induced increase in serum cholesterol of stroke-prone SHRs.