The ribosomal population of the sponge Geodia cydonium has been examined. The monosomes have a sedimentation constant of 80 S, the sizes of the subunits are approximately 60 S and 45 S respectively. The polyribosomes contain up to 40 ribosomal units. Cell free protein synthesizing systems (cell homogenate as well as reconstituted system) have been prepared and characterized with respect to Mg2+, KCI and ATP concentrations, temperature, pH and time course of the reaction. In the cell-free system and in the cellular system the protein biosynthesis is inhibited by chloramphenicol. It is not affected by cycloheximide.