Planting date of soybean, Glycinemax, influenced winter survival of Pratylenchus brachyurus in microplots at two locations in North Carolina. Delayed planting resulted in a linear decrease (P = 0.05) in the numbers of P. brachyurus at soybean harvest. Effects of planting date on nematode numbers persisted over winter, indicating that survival in the absence of a host is density independent. Compared with winter fallow, winter wheat, Triticum aestivum, reduced winter survival of P. brachyurus. Subsequent soybean yields were suppressed by the overwintering population of this nematode at one location but not at another. Key words: Glycine max, Triticum aestivum, lesion nematode, cropping systems, cover crops, population dynamics, damage threshold, survival.