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Arachis hoehnei, the Probable B Genome Donor of Arachis hypogaea Based on Crossability, Cytogenetical and Molecular Studies

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Cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) is made up of two genomes, A and B. It is presumed that polyploidization event between diploid A and B genome species gave rise to cultivated tetraploid groundnut some 3500 years ago (Singh and Simpson 1994). There is no ambiguity regarding A. duranensis as the A genome donor of A. hypogaea (Gregory and Gregory 1979, Singh 1988, Kochert et al. 1991, Paik-Ro et al. 1992, Stalker 1992). Different species from the B genome pool have been proposed as the B genome donor. According to Singh (1998), A. batizocoi is the B genome donor. Based on RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) studies, Kochert et al. (1991) have suggested A. ipaensis as the B genome donor. According to Paik-Ro et al. (1992), A. batizocoi is not closely related to A. hypogaea and hence cannot be the B genome donor. Karyotype studies of Fernandez and Krapovickas (1994) support A. duranensis and A. ipaensis as the A and B genome donors of A. hypogaea.

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