Abstract Two proteins from the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of Tetrahymena pyriformis have been isolated and shown by immunological methods to be major components of a pervasive system of filaments localized within the oral apparatus. These proteins, OF-1 and OF-2, have apparent molecular weights ( MW app ) in polyacrylamide gels of 87-000 and 80-000 D, respectively. Peptide maps obtained and the absence of immunological cross-reactivity suggest that these proteins are not closely related to each other. Indirect immunofluorescence studies on dividing cells have shown that the oral filament system forms late in the cell cycle. The filaments appeared first after the basal bodies in the oral primordium had organized into groups and the fission furrow had begun to form. Dedifferentiation of the oral filament system in the anterior (old) oral apparatus was also observed at this point in the cell cycle. Following this, the oral filament systems in both old and new oral apparatuses completed development synchronously. Proteins showing antigenic similarity to OF-1 were found in a number of other cell types. Tests with heterologous antisera failed to demonstrate a relationship between vertebrate cytoskeletal proteins and the oral filament proteins of Tetrahymena.