ObjectivesTree legume species play an important role in forest restoration in the tropics. Understanding how different species adjust carbohydrate allocation and growth under distinct nutrient availability will enhance the success of restoring degraded areas.Data descriptionA 2-year tropical forest plantation of the Forest Restoration Program of the Balbina Hydropower Dam was evaluated. Three non-N-fixing (Cenostigma tocantinum, Dipteryx odorata and Senna reticulata) and three N-fixing (Clitoria fairchildiana, Inga edulis and Acacia spp.) tree legume species were either fertilized or not fertilized. Growth rates and biomass allocation were calculated, and carbon (C) fractions and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations were determined. Multiple nutrient additions increased the growth rates and aboveground biomass production of fertilized plants. According to the results presented, different species and N- fixers respond differently to fertilization regimes. The authors encourage the use of the presented data in meta-analysis studies that consider the fertilization or nutrient deficiency effects on growth, carbohydrate and nutrient responses. N-fixing species with high biomass growth and foliar N are important for restoring N and C cycles in nutrient-limited soils. Fertilization treatments are fundamental during the early stages of forest plantation development.