Abstract The study of the history of the geological development and structure of the eastern part of the Mediterranean Alpine Belt from Iran to Anatolia leads to the conclusion about the presence in this region of transversal structural lineaments, which retained their importance during the entire known geological history. The appearance of transversal lineaments took place as early as the Precambrian, when tectonic structures had meridional strike. The major transversal lineament, called the Trans-Caucasian, is not limited by the folded belt, but stretches out to the adjoining parts of the neighbouring platforms: East European and Arabian. For the Alpine stage of development of the described region, the complicated mosaic distribution of individual zones of subsidences, uplifts and foldings, formed in different ages, is characteristic. The ophiolite formation does not form long stretching zones, but produces isolated closed elongated depressions. The distribution of the layers of the Mesozoic deposits indicates the direct connection of Zagros with the adjoining part of the Arabian platform. All these peculiarities in geological development exclude the possibility of application to this region of “plate tectonics” constructions.