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MESSIAHS FOR AND AGAINST THE DOMINANT CULTURE: POLITICAL WRITING of AMERICAN and TURKISH WOMEN in the LATE 19th and EARLY 20th CENTURIES

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SOSYAL BİLİMLER ENSTİTÜSÜ DERGİSİ / JOURNAL OF GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
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Abstract

Mid-nineteenth century America witnessed a counter-culture movement organized by a group of female philanthropists who tried to promote reforms in the status of women and African-Americans. Writers, educators like Margaret Fuller, Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, the Grimke Sisters, Francis Kemble, members of the mainstream culture, followed their mentors, namely Emerson and Channing, in order to defend women’s rights and the cause of the abolitionists. In Turkey, Halide Edip, Melek Reşit and their followers, struggled for the independence of their country at the beginning of the 20th century, similarly tried to make their voice heard with their political writings, letters, seminars and conferences in both national and international grounds. Their writings on the political realm in regard to historical framework fit into Frederick Jameson’s idea of the cultural revolution which is apprehended through the ideology of form, in their case, pamphlets, memoirs and letters. It is proposed to analyze, in this article, to what extent Jameson’s definition could be applicable to their case, since, in many aspects, theirs was a rare one, being both in the centre and the margin of the cultural and historical mold.Key Words: History, Culture, Politics, Women Messiahs Özet : Amerika’da kölecilik ve ırk ayrımına karşı savaşım veren Angelina ve Sarah Grimké kardeşler, zenci kadınların eğitim görmeleri için okullar açılmasına öncülük eden Elizabeth Palmer Peabody ve Ellery Channing ve bu bilince basın yoluyla destek sağlayan Frances Kemble Butler gibi çarpıcı örneklerle anlatılan kadın kahramanlar, toplumda önemli değişimlerin yolunu açmışlardır. Türkiye’de ise ülkelerinin bağımsızlığı için savaşım veren Halide Edip Adıvar ve Melek Reşit Hanım yazılarıyla, siyasal katkılarıyla, oluşturdukları konseylerle, verdikleri seminer ve konferanslarla seslerini ulusal ve uluslararası düzeyde duyurmuşlardır.Kısaca kadının toplumsal olaylara karşı duyarlılığı ve ülkelerinin gönenci için savaşımını konu alan bildiri, böylelikle aynı dönemlerde yaşayan kadınların ortak yanlarını da değerlenmektedir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Tarih, kültür, politika, kadın mesihler

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