A stable free-radical polymeric derivative of prostaglandin B1 (PGBx) has been synthesized that exhibits regenerative effects on oxidative phosphorylation in aged mitochondria. The molecular weights of the most active preparations fall between 2000 and 2600. PGBx is characterized by a single-line electron spin resonance spectrum that is stable at room temperature. PGBx restores phosphorylating ability and net ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria aged for 4 days at 0 degrees C and protects against further degradation of phosphorylating activity when such aged mitochondria are preincubated at 28 degrees C in the absence of adenine nucleotide phosphate acceptors. This compound has been reported to exert beneficial effects in vivo in experimental pathological conditions, such as regional ischemia, in which the mitochondria of the ischemic region may have been damaged.