The purpose of the Asian Development Bank Report was to investigate and study the energy infrastructure development of western industrialized nations along with their impact on the environment. Then there could be an analysis of how IMAR could "leapfrog" or jump over the mistakes of the west and create an energy infrastructure for itself and China. The report reflects and summarizes this historical energy infrastructure development over the 20th Century. The five countries were the UK, Germany, S.Â Africa, USA and Australia. The foreign energy advisors felt that there were two additional elements that needed to be included. First was the fact that the USA as a whole was different than its regions or states, particularly California. So the nation-state of California was added. Secondly, the western nations of Germany and S. Africa in particular, had carefully considered some advanced coal technologies that were "cleaner" than the traditional and conventional approaches to mining. Both nations developed these "clean coal" technologies that are now being used more and more today in other developed nations like the USA. If IMAR was to retain much of its coal production and reduce it over time, then it had to install these technologies now to reduce global warming and reverse the climate change caused by current coal mining.