Gender differences in coronary bypass surgery have been the focus of numerous publications in recent years. Unfortunately these publications have contradictions that leave surgeons with conflicting recommendations for care. To help resolve these inconsistencies, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Workforce on Evidence-Based Surgery has carried out an objective review of published information in this field. The STS Workforce recognizes that there are important gender issues associated with referral bias, the impact of body size, psychosocial factors, and postoperative support, but the intent of this guideline is to focus specifically on perioperative management. As with all practice guidelines, our goal is to gather the most important information, analyze the information in a logical and unbiased fashion, and make recommendations based solely on the available evidence.