Abstract Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades involve vegetative hyphal growth, development of infection-related structure, colonization in host plant and female fertility in phytopathogenic ascomycete fungi. In this study, a heterotrimeric G protein β subunit (Gβ), GPB1, and MAPK, MPK1, were characterized from Fusarium sacchari (=Gibberella sacchari; mating population B of the G. fujikuroi-species complex). GPB1 and MPK1 showed high homology to known Gβ and Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinases of other filamentous ascomycetes, respectively. Disruption (Δ) of gpb1 suppressed hyphal branching and accelerated aerial hyphae formation in F. sacchari. Oppositely, disruption of mpk1 caused delayed aerial hyphae formation. These indicated that GPB1 regulates vegetative hyphal growth negatively, and MPK1 does positively in F. sacchari. Both Δgpb1 and Δmpk1 showed female sterility. Level of intracellular cAMP in Δgpb1 was lower than wild type. Exogenous cyclic AMP (cAMP) partially restored enhanced aerial hyphae formation. These suggested that abnormal hyphal growth was caused by depletion of intracellular cAMP in Δgpb1. cAMP has been reported to suppress development of perithecia in crossing between wild type strains. Thus, precise regulation of intracellular cAMP level via Gβ/MAPK is essential for normal hyphal growth and fertility.