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Biosynthesis of 2-aceto-2-hydroxy acids: acetolactate synthases and acetohydroxyacid synthases

Authors
Journal
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology
0167-4838
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
1385
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/s0167-4838(98)00083-1
Keywords
  • Acetolactate
  • Acetohydroxy Acid
  • Oxygenase
  • Peracid
  • Branched Chain Amino Acid
  • Acetoin
Disciplines
  • Biology

Abstract

Abstract Two groups of enzymes are classified as acetolactate synthase (EC 4.1.3.18). This review deals chiefly with the FAD-dependent, biosynthetic enzymes which readily catalyze the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and 2-oxobutyrate, as well as of acetolactate from two molecules of pyruvate (the ALS/AHAS group). These enzymes are generally susceptible to inhibition by one or more of the branched-chain amino acids which are ultimate products of the acetohydroxyacids, as well as by several classes of herbicides (sulfonylureas, imidazolinones and others). Some ALS/AHASs also catalyze the (non-physiological) oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, leading to peracetic acid; the possible relationship of this process to oxygen toxicity is considered. The bacterial ALS/AHAS which have been well characterized consist of catalytic subunits (around 60 kDa) and smaller regulatory subunits in an α 2β 2 structure. In the case of Escherichia coli isozyme III, assembly and dissociation of the holoenzyme has been studied. The quaternary structure of the eukaryotic enzymes is less clear and in plants and yeast only catalytic polypeptides (homologous to those of bacteria) have been clearly identified. The presence of regulatory polypeptides in these organisms cannot be ruled out, however, and genes which encode putative ALS/AHAS regulatory subunits have been identified in some cases. A consensus sequence can be constructed from the 21 sequences which have been shown experimentally to represent ALS/AHAS catalytic polypeptides. Many other sequences fit this consensus, but some genes identified as putative ‘acetolactate synthase genes’ are almost certainly not ALS/AHAS. The solution of the crystal structures of several thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes which are homologous to ALS/AHAS, together with the availability of many amino acid sequences for the latter enzymes, has made it possible for two laboratories to propose similar, reasonable models for a dimer of catalytic subunits of an ALS/AHAS. A number of characteristics of these enzymes can now be better understood on the basis of such models: the nature of the herbicide binding site, the structural role of FAD and the binding of ThDP-Mg 2+. The models are also guides for experimental testing of ideas concerning structure–function relationships in these enzymes, e.g. the nature of the substrate recognition site. Among the important remaining questions is how the enzyme suppresses alternative reactions of the intrinsically reactive hydroxyethylThDP enamine formed by the decarboxylation of the first substrate molecule and specifically promotes its condensation with 2-oxobutyrate or pyruvate.

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