We compared the effect of intramuscular vs. inhaled 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (23-PPV) on pulmonary mucosal immunoglobulin levels. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum were collected from 33 adults before and 1 month after injected (n=16) or inhaled (n=17) 23-PPV. Levels of pneumococcal capsule-specific IgG and IgA to types 1, 9V and 14 were measured in each sample. Injected 23-PPV produced a significant increase in types 1, 9V and 14 capsule-specific IgG and type 1 IgA in both serum and BAL (type 1 geometric mean BAL IgG 9.8ng/ml post-vaccine vs. 5ng/ml pre-vaccine, p=0.01; type 9V geo mean 5.6ng/ml vs. 2.7ng/ml, p=0.001; type 14 geo mean 23.6ng/ml vs. 6.2ng/ml, p=0.02). Inhaled vaccine produced no response in either BAL or serum.