ADP and ATP were transported in Rickettsia prowazekii by an obligate exchange system without prior hydrolysis. The uptake of ATP and ADP by the obligate exchange system in R. prowazekii was dependent upon the anionic composition of the medium. The rate of transport of ATP was about three times greater than that of ADP in the absence of anions, and the rates of transport of both were about doubled by a variety of anions. However, phosphate anions were able to stimulate greatly the uptake of ADP so that in the presence of these anions, the uptake of ATP and that of ADP were about equal. Millimolar concentrations of anions were required to elicit the stimulation of ADP and ATP transport. The ADP-dependent efflux of ADP and ATP was also greatly stimulated by phosphate anions. The stimulation of ADP and ATP transport required that the anions be present in the external medium, as preincubation of the rickettsiae with phosphate anions was neither necessary nor sufficient. The competitive inhibition of ATP uptake by ADP required phosphate anions, indicating that phosphate anions increased the affinity of ADP for the transport system. The role of phosphate in the regulation of ATP and ADP exchange and its significance are discussed.