Uveitis is a major and common cause of visual disability. Recent studies have shown that Th17 cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of this serious intraocular disorder. Activated T cells express an inducible costimulatory molecule called OX40, and OX40 in turn promotes the activation and proliferation of these lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether OX40 plays a vital role in enhancing the effector function of Th17 cells as well as the severity of uveitis. In this study, we demonstrated an increase of OX40 transcription in ovalbumin-induced uveitis, whereas anti-OX40L antibody substantially inhibited the antigen-specific ocular inflammation. Next, results from flow cytometry showed that activated Th17 cells expressed OX40, and OX40-activating antibody significantly augmented the production of Th17 cytokines in vitro . To validate the impact of OX40 in vivo , we stimulated ovalbumin-specific T cells with the OX40-activating antibody. Compared to donor cells without OX40 activation, adoptive transfer of OX40-stimulated lymphocytes elicited more severe ocular inflammation. Furthermore, an interleukin-17-neutralizing antibody attenuated OX40-mediated uveitis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that activation of OX40 augments Th17 cell function and thereby contributes to ocular inflammation. This study thus enhances our knowledge of costimulatory molecule-mediated immunopathological mechanisms of uveitis and suggests a future therapeutic strategy to treat uveitis by the targeting of OX40.