Background: Candida spp. are a frequent cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections worldwide. Objective: To evaluate the use patterns and outcomes associated with intravenous (IV) fluconazole therapy in intensive care units in Spain and Germany. Patients and methods: The research reported here was a prospective multicenter longitudinal observational study in adult intensive care unit patients receiving IV fluconazole. Demographic, microbiologic, therapy success, length of hospital stay, adverse event, and all-cause mortality data were collected at 14 sites in Spain and five in Germany, from February 2004 to November 2005. Results: Patients (n = 303) received prophylaxis (n = 29), empiric therapy (n = 140), preemptive therapy (n = 85), or definitive therapy (n = 49). A total of 298 patients (98.4%) were treated with IV fluconazole as first-line therapy. The treating physicians judged therapy successful in 66% of prophylactic, 55% of empiric, 45% of preemptive, and 43% of definitive group patients. In the subgroup of 152 patients with proven and specified Candida infection only, 32% suffered from Candida specified as potentially resistant to IV fluconazole. The overall mortality rate was 42%. Conclusion: Our study informs treatment decision makers that approximately 32% of the patients with microbiological results available suffered from Candida specified as potentially resistant to IV fluconazole, highlighting the importance of appropriate therapy.