Abstract A double blind, randomized, controlled Phase 2 clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and biologic impact of the vaccine candidate Apical Membrane Antigen 1-Combination 1 (AMA1-C1), adjuvanted with Alhydrogel ®. Participants were healthy children 2–3 years old living in or near the village of Bancoumana, Mali. A total of 300 children received either the study vaccine or the comparator. No impact of vaccination was seen on the primary endpoint, the frequency of parasitemia measured as episodes >3000/μL/day at risk. There was a negative impact of vaccination on the hemoglobin level during clinical malaria, and mean incidence of hemoglobin <8.5 g/dL, in the direction of lower hemoglobin in the children who received AMA1-C1, although these differences were not significant after correction for multiple tests. These differences were not seen in the second year of transmission.