Abstract In recent years, therapy with monoclonal antibodies has become standard of care in various clinical applications. Despite obvious clinical activity, not all patients respond and benefit from this generally well tolerated treatment option. Therefore, rational optimization of antibody therapy represents a major area of interest in translational research. Animal models and clinical data suggested important roles of Fc-mediated effector mechanisms such as antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) in antibody therapy. These novel insights into the mechanisms of action mediated by monoclonal antibodies inspired the development of different engineering approaches to enhance/optimize antibodies’ effector functions. Fc-engineering approaches by altering the Fc-bound glycosylation profile or by exchanging amino acids in the protein backbone have been intensively studied. Here, advanced and emerging technologies in Fc-engineering resulting in altered ADCC and CDC activity are summarized and experimental strategies to evaluate antibodies’ effector functions are discussed.