Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is an important legume component in the dryland agricultural production systems, mainly because of its ability to produce large biomass and protein-rich seeds. India is the largest producer of pigeonpea, accounting for over 80% of the world production. Other important pigeonpea growing countries are located in the South America as well as in southern and eastern Africa. In Asia besides India, Nepal and Myanmar grow considerable acreage of pigeonpea. The newly bred ICRISAT varieties have taken pigeonpea crop into new areas. The latest example is the success of our varieties across the Himalayan range in China.