Abstract Using a double immunostaining technique with cholera toxin (CT) as a retrograde tracer, we examined the cells of origin and the histochemical nature of afferents to the cat posterior hypothalamus. After injection in the tuberomamillary nucleus, a number of CT-labeled cells were observed in: medial preoptic area, nuclei of the septum and the stria terminalis, amygdaloid complex, anterior hypothalamic, ventromedial hypothalamic and premamillary nuclei. CT injections in the lateral hypothalamic area gave an additional heavy labeling of neurons in: lateral preoptic area, nuclei of the diagonal band of Broca, substantia innominata, and nucleus accumbens. The posterior hypothalamus receives: 1) cholinergic inputs from the septum, the lateral preoptic area and the nuclei of the diagonal band of Broca. 2) dopaminergic afferents from All, A13, and A14 groups. 3) histeminergic afferents from the posterior hypothalamus. 4) peptidergic afferents such as methionin-enkephalin, galanin and neurotensin, substance P and corticotropin-releasing factor from the medial preoptic area, the nucleus of the stria terminalis and/or the posterior hypothalamic structures.