Objective We sought to estimate cytologically benign endometrial cell (CBEC)-associated endometrial hyperplasia and cancer rates, and describe clinical and histologic outcomes. Study Design Medical records of women age >40 years with CBEC in 2005 through 2010 were reviewed for clinical characteristics; assessment with endometrial biopsy, ultrasound, or hysteroscopy; and consequent outcomes. Results Of 658 women, 281 (42.7%) were assessed: 39.4% of 330 premenopausal, and 46.0% of 328 postmenopausal women. Among these, cancer rate was 3.6% and differed between premenopausal (0.8%) and postmenopausal (6.0%) women (P = .019). Hyperplasia rate was similar in premenopausal (3.9%) and postmenopausal (3.3%) women. Of 20 assessed women with endometrial pathology, 4 (1 premenopausal) women with cancer and 4 (2 premenopausal) women with hyperplasia had no abnormal bleeding. Conclusion Cancer was more common in postmenopausal women with assessed CBEC while hyperplasia was comparably distributed between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Findings support CBEC assessment regardless of menopausal status or abnormal bleeding.