Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of acute abdominal conditions, with the principal emphasis on abdominal x-ray findings, are discussed. There are various diseases which are classified under the category of acute abdominal conditions, and it is therefore very difficult to make a diagnosis of each of them without making any error. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment are possible if one thoroughly examines the abdominal roentgenographic findings with reference to the various clinical symptoms which accompany the abdominal pain. Needless to say early diagnosis is as important in acute abdominal conditions as it is in any other disease. However, early treatment is postulated even more urgently and the utmost care must be taken not to lose much time in a search for diagnosis, which would thus risk the life of the patient. It is therefore considered necessary to resort to laparotomy without hesitation when a diagnosis of acute abdominal condition is roughly made, even if a more exact and detailed diagnosis is difficult.