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Policy And Practice Options for Managing Protected Areas: Lessons from International Experience

  • Ecology
  • Geography


There is now a wealth of international experience and lessons about options for managing environmentallysensitive zones. This paper1 provides a brief guide to two sets of options, regulatory instruments and incentive measures, that are commonly used to manage special areas. Managementapproachesthat combine both sets of tools are then reviewed, including integrated coastal zone management, municipal-level programmes and efforts to promote sustainable local development such as eco-tourism. The paper concludes that, regardless of which approach is applied to a protected area, the key threats to an area's sustainability must be identified and addressed. Examples and case studies of both good and poor practice are included to illustrate the use of different options. In order to sustain our global environment and improve the quality of living in our human settlements, we commit ourselves to sustainable patterns of production, consumption, transportation and settlement development, pollution prevention, respect for the carrying capacity of eco-systems, and the preservation of opportunities for future generations. (Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements, June 1996)

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