Purpose We assessed the factors predictive of continence recovery after radical retropubic prostatectomy performed by use a single operative technique by a single surgeon. Materials and Methods Preoperative factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen level, and anatomical information from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such as membranous urethral length, thickness of the levator ani muscle, and urogenital diaphragm, were evaluated in 94 consecutive patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy between April 2005 and October 2010. Patients were also categorized into four different groups according to the overlying pattern of the prostatic apex and the membranous urethra. Continence status was evaluated by direct patient questioning at 12 months after the operation. Results The overall continence rate at 12 months after the operation was 79.8%. In the age- and BMI-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the membranous urethral length and the overlying pattern of the prostatic apex were significant predictive factors of the continence rate at 12 months after the operation (p=0.006 and p=0.007, respectively). Other predictive factors were not contributory. Patients with no overlapping observed between the prostatic apex and membranous urethra had longer membranous urethral lengths (14.24±2.73 mm) and higher rates of recovery of continence compared with other groups. Conclusions Membranous urethral length and shape of the prostatic apex as assessed by preoperative MRI are significantly associated with recovery of urinary continence after radical retropubic prostatectomy.