Since mathematical sociology was firmly established in the 1960s, it has grown tremendously. Today it has an impressive scope and deals with topical problems of social structure and social change. A distinctive feature of today's use of mathematics in sociology is the movement toward a synthesis between process, structure, and action. In combination with an increased attention to social mechanisms and the problems of causality and temporality, this synthesis can add to its relevance for sociology in general. The article presents recent advances and major sociological research streams in contemporary sociology that involve the application of mathematics, logic, and computer modeling.