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Distribution of Intraocular Pressure and Its Association with Ocular Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Gutenberg Health Study

DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.10.031
  • Medicine
  • Psychology


Purpose To describe the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its association with ocular features and cardiovascular risk factors in an adult European cohort. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants This analysis was based on a Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) cohort that included 4335 eligible enrollees from among 5000 subjects who participated in the survey from 2007 through 2008. The age range was 35 to 74 years at enrollment. Methods Participants underwent a standardized protocol with a comprehensive questionnaire; ophthalmic examination including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, noncontact tonometry, fundus photography, central corneal thickness measurement, and visual field testing; and a thorough general examination focused on cardiovascular parameters, psychological evaluation, and laboratory tests, including genetic analysis. Main Outcome Measures Mean and reference interval of IOP stratified by age, gender, and eye. Results Mean ± standard deviation (SD) IOP was 14.0±2.6 mmHg in both eyes, 13.9±2.7 mmHg in right eyes, and 14.0±2.7 mmHg in left eyes. Mean ± SD IOP in men (n = 2216) and in women (n = 2119) was 14.1±2.7 mmHg and 13.9±2.5 mmHg with an intersex difference (P = 0.009). Positive univariate associations with higher IOP were detected for brown iris color, central corneal thickness, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, body mass index, weight, hip size (women only), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. Multivariate testing revealed male gender, central corneal thickness, brown iris color, hypertension, smoking, and waist-to-hip ratio to be correlated with higher IOP. In women, age correlated negatively with IOP in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Intraocular pressure distribution in this cohort yielded a lower mean IOP than in similar white study populations. Increasing age in women correlated with lower IOP. Association analyses with several systemic characteristics revealed that cardiovascular risk factors correlated with higher IOP. Financial Disclosure(s) The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

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